Volume 24, Issue 3 (Autumn 2022)                   Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2022, 24(3): 17-29 | Back to browse issues page


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Sadeghi F, Chitsaz S. Strategy for comparing the performance of gender differences in the ability of mental rotation to design architectural spaces. Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2022; 24 (3) :17-29
URL: http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1368-en.html
1- Master’s Degree Student, Department of Design and Creativity, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor at Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1272 Views)
Introduction
Spatial abilities are essential high-level cognitive skills. Mental rotation is one of the spatial abilities. Mental rotation is the ability to visualize a two or three-dimensional shape, rotate it around an imaginary axis, and represent it after the rotation. One of the most critical factors influencing mental rotation is gender differences. Gender differences in mental rotation are more related to brain lateralization. Addressing gender differences in the ability of mental rotation in the design of architectural spaces leads to the growth and development of cognitive abilities in people, the improvement of spatial visual abilities, and the improvement of people's sense of belonging to spaces; as a result, it becomes necessary to achieve a criterion for the design of architectural spaces suitable for gender from the perspective of mental rotation. The lack of mental rotation studies and their effectiveness in designing architectural spaces is one of the reasons for the necessity and importance of this research. The research hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the comparisons of gender differences from the perspective of mental rotation in the design of architectural spaces. The purpose of the present study is to compare the performance of mental rotation by considering gender for the design of spaces and architectural plans. Accordingly, the current study aims to answer the question of the relationship between the comparison of gender differences from the perspective of mental rotation and architectural space design.
Methods
The purpose of the research was the applied method, and it’s from is descriptive-analytical. The statistical participants include one hundred participants, among whom 50 Iranian women and 50 non-specialist men aged 15 to 55 were selected by a voluntary non-random sampling method. This research design and data collection processes were done in five stages. In the first step of designing the questionnaire, various sources and research in architecture and cognition were studied and reviewed. In the second stage, according to the results of previous research, the main components were identified. In the third stage, to design the questions, the members of mental rotation were taken in the design of the idea, and the demographic data such as age and educational status of the participants was taken into account. In the fourth stage, the content validity of the questionnaire was checked by architectural and cognitive experts. The fifth stage was the preliminary implementation of the questionnaire. The purpose of this stage was to modify the questionnaire and adapt it to gender differences in mental rotation. For this purpose, the questions were implemented on ten men and women, and their problems and shortcomings were solved. After solving the issues, the final form was prepared and ready for implementation. Finally, people received the final form of the compiled questionnaire. The questioning was done using a five-scale Likert questionnaire. The number of six questions for each gender was provided to the subjects through internet questionnaires on social networks. The respondents were then asked to answer the questions based on the mental ideal spatial image, and as quickly as possible without affecting the correctness or accuracy of the answers. Before the questions were raised, a form was shown to the participants about how to cooperate, the confidentiality of information, and the declaration of consent for the cooperation of individuals. The criterion for entering the research was not having a severe mental disorder and mental disability in both groups. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis in SPSS-26 software.
Results
Cronbach's alpha calculated in this questionnaire is equal to 0.66 for men and 0.542 for women, which means that the data of the questionnaire is appropriate. According to the Pearson correlation coefficient of the questions, it is concluded that the significance level of the obtained correlation is less than 0.05, so the relationship is significant. The null hypothesis is rejected, and with 95% confidence, it can be said that there is a direct and meaningful relationship between the influence of gender differences and architectural space design from the perspective of rotation. The results of multiple regression analysis in men show that the significance level of F obtained is 0.904 with degrees of freedom 5 and 44 lower than 0.05. Based on the value of R2, 9.3% of the effectiveness component of gender differences is caused by factors affecting architectural space design from the perspective of mental rotation. The results of the multiple regression analysis presented in women also show that the significance level of F obtained is 1.671 with a degree of freedom of 5 and 44 lower than 0.05. In relation to the value of R2, 16% of the component of the impact of gender differences is caused by factors affecting architectural space design from the perspective of mental rotation. The beta coefficient was also calculated to determine the intensity and direction of the practical components' influence on the architectural space design from the standpoint of mental rotation on gender differences. In line with Friedman's table of average ratings, each architectural space design component's rating is different from the mental rotation perspective. Based on this, for men, the hypothesis of an ideal space in depth, with the highest score, and the most significant event in the center, with the lowest score, also for women, preference for a space based on reality and technical, with the highest score and the most significant event around, with the lowest score, it is among the physical components.
Table 1. The results of Friedman's analysis of the effectiveness of gender differences and architectural space design from the perspective of mental rotation
P-value Degrees of Freedom Likelihood Ratio Number Gender
0.003 5 3.768 50 Men
0.001 5 9.220 50 Women

Conclusion
Mental rotation is investigated and studied as one of the most fundamental parts of spatial perception. Furthermore, mental rotation is the ability to visualize a two or three-dimensional figure, rotate it around an imaginary axis, and represent it after the rotation. According to the statistical data analysis of the current study, a significant relationship was found between mental rotation and the design of architectural plans based on gender. The results of this research provided the possibility to discover the differences and similarities of spaces based on gender differences in mental rotation and also helped to discover the structure and patterns of people's spatial perceptions. In addition, such research provides indications for further investigation of plans based on cognitive factors. It is possible to propose architectural space plans suitable for mental rotation regarding the results of this research so that the cognitive component of gender differences is considered. Spaces related to women's activities, such as bedrooms, kitchens, commercial spaces, clothes and the like, at the level of the surface and around, so that it can be seen by walking, as well as based on reality and technical along with long routes, in order and be designed with a large rotation angle. Correspondingly, the spaces related to men's activities, such as TV rooms and commercial food spaces should be designed in a level of depth, in the center in an imaginative way, along with short paths, as random spaces, and with the lowest angle of rotation.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
All the participants received information about the research, its steps, and how to conduct it. Before conducting the research, it was explained to the participants about the confidentiality of the information and the optional participation in the research. The participants were free to withdraw from the cooperation at any study stage.

Authors' contributions
The authors participated in all stages of this study, including in the design and creativity of the selecting research topic, research implementation, raw data analysis, design and implementation of statistical tests, and initial writing and revision of the article.

Funding
This research is not under the financial support of any institution or organization.

Acknowledgments
The authors are deeply grateful for the compassionate guidance of Bent Al-Hoda Sadeghi, Armati Rahmani, Marjan Dadkhah Tehrani, and Roozbeh Naghshineh.
Conflicts of interests
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
 
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2021/11/27 | Accepted: 2022/06/29 | Published: 2022/11/15

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