Volume 24, Issue 2 (summer 2022)                   Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2022, 24(2): 84-98 | Back to browse issues page


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Kazemi Rezaei S A, Moradi A, Shagholian M, Abdollahi M H, Parhoon H. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the short form Memory Experience Questionnaire. Advances in Cognitive Sciences. 2022; 24 (2) :84-98
URL: http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1357-en.html
1- PhD Student of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor of Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3- Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
4- Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
5- Assistant Professor of Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Abstract:   (318 Views)
Introduction
Autobiographical recall is a critical component to create a coherent and consistent sense of self over time. In particular, the phenomenological experience of the personal past as vivid, detailed, and emotional creates a sense of re-living that emphasizes how the present is connected to the past and may facilitate anticipating and planning for the future. Memories produce intense phenomenological experiences. Indeed, our most personally meaningful memories are defined by their phenomenology: they are effectively intense, vivid, and, related to enduring concerns or unresolved conflicts. Sutin and Robins (2016) developed the Memory Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) as a reliable, valid and comprehensive measure (1). Moreover, a psychometrically sound short version of the MEQ would facilitate research on memory phenomenology. Accordingly, the first goal of this research is to validate such a measure. The second goal of this research is to examine the association between phenomenology and psychological distress in a non-clinical population. Memory phenomenology plays a crucial role in many clinical disorders. For example, individuals suffering from depression or trauma-related symptomatology tend to have limited access to specific event-knowledge information and tend to retrieve overgeneral memories. A comprehensive measure of phenomenology may offer new insights into both the inner workings of memory and the connections between memory and other critical psychological phenomena. For example, phenomenology might help to distinguish between types of memories, such as true and false memories. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate students’ psychometric properties of the Persian version of the short form MEQ.
Methods
In the present study, which was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the short form of the MEQ, 256 participants were enrolled, of which 30% were men. The study sample in terms of marital status consisted of 154 people (60.2%) single and 102 people (39.8%) married. In terms of education level, 157 people (61.3%) had a bachelor's degree, 71 people (27.7%) had a master's degree, and 28 people (11%) had a PhD degree. In the present study, the mean and standard deviation of the age of the participants were 30.20 and 9.55, respectively. This study is in the framework of descriptive and correlational research. This study is in the framework of descriptive and correlational research. The present study's statistical population consisted of all students of Kharazmi University in the academic year 2020-21. Therefore, first, the google questionnaire form was prepared by distributing the online questionnaire link to 256 students of Kharazmi University in the form of available sampling through virtual networks (Telegram & WhatsApp to participate in this research. This method was selected due to traffic restrictions in the prevalence of coronavirus in Iran. After completing the questionnaires, the participants' information was stored in an excel file and then entered into SPSS software for analysis. The short-form memory experiences questionnaire, trait anxiety questionnaire, mood and anxiety symptoms questionnaire and loneliness questionnaire were used to collect the data. The collected data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS-25 and AMOS-25 software.
Results
Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a good fit for the ten-factor model of the memory experiences questionnaire. RMSEA fit index is equal to (0.060), CFI index is equal to (0.903), and IFI index is equal to (0.906), which according to Kline model (2015), shows the optimal fit of the model. The criterion validity of the MEQ was confirmed by the Loneliness, Trait Anxiety Questionnaire, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (P<0.05). There is a significant inverse relationship between the variables of Vividness, Accessibility, Time Perspective, Sharing, and Valence with the feeling of loneliness. The value of these relationships is -0.16, -0.16, -0.16, -0.23, and -0.20, respectively. There is an inverse and significant relationship between the variables of Accessibility and Valence with trait anxiety, which are equal to -0.17 and -0.28, respectively. Also, there is an inverse and significant relationship between the variables of Accessibility and Valence with general distress, which are equal to -0.15 and -0.22, respectively. Finally, there is an inverse and significant relationship between the variables of Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility and Valence with anxiety arousal, which are equal to -0.14, -0.19, -0.31, and -0.24, respectively. The internal consistency method was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The results of Cronbach's alpha indicated the appropriate internal consistency of the questionnaire and its components. Cronbach's alpha for vividness equal to 0.74, coherence equal to 0.71, accessibility equal to, sensory detail equal to 0.45, emotional intensity equal to 0.68, visual perspective equal to 0.62, time perspective equal to 0.74, sharing equal to 0.72, distancing equal to 0.83, and valence was equal to 0.92.
Conclusion
According to the findings, it can be concluded that the Persian version of the short form of the Memory Experience Questionnaire (MEQ-SF) for measuring phenomenological memory in Iran has appropriate psychometric properties and can be a reliable tool in clinical and research situations.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
The present study observes ethical principles, including respect for the principle of confidentiality of participants, so that for confidentiality, participants were coded and their names were removed. Adequate information on how to conduct research was provided to all participants in the research and their freedom to leave the research process.
Authors’ contributions
The first and second authors prepared and translated the English version of the questionnaire, and then the other authors reviewed it. All authors were involved in data collection. The research literature and research background were searched in collaboration with all authors. The first and fifth authors analyzed the data. All authors discussed the results and participated in preparing and editing the final version of the article.

Funding
No financial support has been received from any organization for this research.

Acknowledgments
We thank all the students of Kharazmi University, Tehran, Razi, and Beheshti who participated and collaborated with us in collecting the present study's findings.
Conflict of interest
This study did not have any conflict of interest.
 
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2021/11/10 | Accepted: 2022/04/27 | Published: 2022/08/11

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