Volume 23, Issue 4 (Winter 2022)                   Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2022, 23(4): 86-102 | Back to browse issues page


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Chaharrahi M, Zarbakhsh M, Khalatbari J, Tizdast T. Development of a structural model for predicting maladaptive schemas based on mediated parenting practices attachment styles and temperament. Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2022; 23 (4) :86-102
URL: http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1329-en.html
1- PhD Student of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran
2- Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran
3- Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran
Abstract:   (1515 Views)
Introduction
Early maladaptive schemas are memories, emotions, bodily sensations, and cognitions that are formed in the mind at the beginning of development and are repeated throughout life and affect the way of interpreting experiences and relationships with others. Young et al. Have developed a classification of early maladaptive schemas that assumes that when caregivers do not adequately meet the child's basic emotional needs, these schemas form in the child and persist into adulthood (5). These needs include the need for security and attachment, the need for independence, the need for freedom of expression and excitement, the need for spontaneity and fun, and the need for realistic constraints. These needs are present in everyone, and meeting these needs in childhood goes back to the type of parenting style of the parents of these children. On the one hand, maladaptive schemas are associated with parenting styles, and attachment and mood styles are associated with parenting styles, and these are effective in creating or not creating maladaptive schemas. Due to the importance of the above and considering the research background, the present study was conducted to develop a structural model for predicting maladaptive schemas based on parenting style with the mediate role of attachment styles and students' moods.
Methods 
The research method was descriptive correlational in which the relationship between research variables is analyzed in the form of path analysis. Early maladaptive schemas were used as independent variables in this model, attachment style and mood as mediated variables, and parenting styles as dependent variables. The statistical population of this study included all students of the Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch in the second semester of the academic year 2020-2021, which through the Krejcie and Morgan table, the sample size of 380 people was determined (Due to the prevalence of COVID-19 in Iran and the impossibility of completing the questionnaire in person. Therefore, the available online sampling method was used to select the statistical sample). The criteria for entering the research were: completing informed consent for participating in the research, knowledge about the research goals. Also, the criteria for exclusion were: has a history of psychiatric disorder, physical illness, and disability affecting a person's life. The Young Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire, Buri Parental Authority Questionnaire, Hazan and Shaver Adult Attachment Questionnaire, Clowninger Temperament and Character Inventory Scale were used to measure the research variables. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistical methods (mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage) and Pearson correlation by SPSS-21. To evaluate the fit of the structural equation model (In the method of structural equations, multivariate normality is one of the essential assumptions that must be considered. In this study, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test the assumption of normality) several indicators include: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI), Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis (TLI), Bentler–Bonett normed fit index (NFI( were used by AMOS-24 software. Also, the Bootstrap method was used to investigate the indirect relationships of the routes.  In this study, a significance level was considered less than 0.05.
Results
The number of female students is 187 (51.9%), and male is 173 (48.1%). The mean and standard deviation of the age of the subjects were 29.48 and 2.38; 182 had a bachelor's degree, 188 had a master's degree, and 56 had a doctorate. First, the normality of data distribution was checked and confirmed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test (P<0.05). The result of the correlation matrix of variables showed the highest correlation coefficient between harm avoidance and innovation (0.68) and the lowest correlation between permissive parenting style and insecure-ambivalent attachment style (0.01). The results of the model fit study showed that the value of X2 is 1697.08, the result of dividing Chi-square with the degree of freedom (2.99) is less than 3 that which indicates the excellent fit of the model. The good fit index (GFI) is 0.905, which indicates the optimal fit of the model. The modified fit index (AGFI) is 0.852, which is greater than 0.85, so the model has a good fit. The root mean square of the estimation error (RMSEA) is 0.075, indicating the research model's confirmation. The Bentler-Bount (NFI) index is 0.907, the Tocler-Lewis index (TLI) is 0.915, the adaptive fit index (CFI) is 0.913, and the relative fit index (RFI) is 0.925; all of this indicates good fit and confirmation. Also, the indirect results of the paths showed that authoritarian parenting style with mediated role of secure attachment style and authoritarian and negligent parenting styles with the mediated role of avoidant attachment style have an indirect effect on the early maladaptive schemas. Authoritarian parenting style with the mediated role of self-direction, cooperation and self-reliance, and authoritarian parenting style with the mediated role of perseverance, self-direction and cooperation and Permissive Parenting Style with the mediated role of harm avoidance have a causal and indirect effect on students' early maladaptive schemas (P<0.01).
Conclusion
While pointing to the complexity of the nature of attachment, character, temperament, and parenting styles, these findings emphasize the recognition and conceptualization of various variables affecting early maladaptive schemas. The results of this study show the importance of warmth, love, and intimacy in the parent-child relationship) the authoritative parenting style that leads to the formation of a secure attachment style. The results of the present study can be used to explain the factors affecting early maladaptive schemas and as a suitable model for designing comprehensive programs to prevent early maladaptive schemas. It is suggested that educational programs be held to understand the importance of parenting style for parents. The most important limitation of the present study is that despite trying to gain cooperation and creating confidence to hide the results (maintaining fiduciary duty), it seems that students' online response plays a role in their response to research variables. Another limitation of this study is that since the subjects of this study were limited to the students of the Islamic Azad University of Karaj, the generalization of the results to other student should be made with caution. Therefore, it is suggested that in order to increase the generalizability of the data, and this research should be done on larger samples.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
The participants signed the informed consent form and had the right to leave the study at any time. All subjects received information about the study. They were assured that all information would remain confidential and would only be used for research purposes. For privacy reasons, the names of the subjects were not registered.
Authors’ contributions 
Conceptualization, validation, review, and editing: All authors. Data analysis, resources, data processing: All authors. Writing and drafting: Matin Chaharrahi.
Funding
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sector. This research was extracted from the PhD dissertation of the first author, in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.
Acknowledgments In the end, the authors are grateful to all participants in the research and all those who have facilitated the implementation of the research.
Conflict of Interest
The author declared no conflict of interest
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2021/09/2 | Accepted: 2021/10/14 | Published: 2022/01/31

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