Volume 23, Issue 1 (Spring 2021)                   Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2021, 23(1): 13-25 | Back to browse issues page

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Jalali M, Kormi-Nouri R, Hassanabadi H, Hatami J. A 4-component scale of working memory: Developing the Persian version and evaluating the validity of it in 4-6 grades children (WM-4CSC). Advances in Cognitive Sciences. 2021; 23 (1) :13-25
URL: http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1195-en.html
1- . PhD Student in Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Psychology Department, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor of Cognitive Psychology, Center for Health & Medical Psychology, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden
3- Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, Department of Educational Psychology, Kharzami University, Tehran, Iran
4- Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (3339 Views)
Introduction: Working memory (WM) plays a central role in cognitive functions, and learning and its capacity predicts and determines other cognitive and academic functions. One of the most famed working memory theories is the Allan Baddeley’s multicomponent model with four components. In this model, there are two slave systems that  save information without manipulating them and two clever systems that can process and save information simultaneously. The positive point in Baddeley’s model is accessible parts for working memory that can study more easily in experimental investigations. However, there is no specific scale that includes all four components of the multicomponent theory of Baddeley in children. Therefore, this study aims to create a 4-components scale of working memory in children (WM-4CSC).
Method: This study was  experimental and developmental research. First of all, based on the theoretical background, all assessment tools of working memory were gathered (all computerized and paper-basedtools). Then, they were established on experts’ opinions and their agreements (CVR and CVI scale), two tasks for each component were selected and translated and coincided with the Persian language and matched to the age of the samples. For the present study, 80 typical children (50 female, 30 male) and ten children with WM deficits in 4-6 grades (8-12 years) with normal IQ participated. All the students were selected from non-profit schools in 1-3 regions in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were divided into three groups: 4th grade, 5th grade, and 6th grade.  For all participants, the examiner explained each task, and when they got the instruction, the test was conducted. Data were analyzed using the One-Way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Test in SPSS-26.
Results: Results showed significant differences in all  scale tasks between three school grades and between typical and atypical children. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the two genders. There was a high correlation between test-retest scores and convergent and diagnostic validities. Cronbach’s alpha was acceptable in all tasks. Moreover, a medium correlation was found in concurrent criterion validity.
Conclusion: with respect to results, it was indicated that a 4-components Scale of working memory has reasonable developmental, retest, diagnostic, and convergent validities and good reliability. Therefore, based on the appropriate validity and reliability of this scale, it can be used by other researchers and more studies. For the future, ​​​​ it is suggested to use this scale in more studies with a more excellent sample to normalize it. Also, it can use in more different ages in children. Moreover, it is suggested to use this scale in different types of developmental disorders and detemine the strengths and weaknesses of each disorder in children.
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/10/1 | Accepted: 2020/12/13 | Published: 2021/03/14

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