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Introduction: Accumulating research shows that bilingualism affect cognitive processes. Bilingual advantages were reported in executive functions, theory of mind, metalinguistic knowledge, and socio-pragmatic abilities, and in some linguistic functions, including grammatical judgments. In this study, we examine the evidence for bilingual advantages in spatial perspective taking and self-regulation. Azeri Turkish/Persian bilinguals and Persian monolinguals performed a visual task used in Hegarty (2004). The participants were required to visualize themselves in different spatial situations and recognize the angle of the objects in relation to the visualized position. Moreover, unsolvable puzzles (Baumeister, 2005) were presented to both groups in order to measure their self-regulation. In the later task, the more time a participant spent to find the answer, the higher the self-regulation score he/she obtained. This means that participants who ponder more on the unsolvable puzzle task, have a higher ability to self-regulate.
Results: Mann-Whitney test and Kendall correlation coefficient test at the significance level of 5% were used to evaluate the significance of the relationship between the variables. The difference in self-regulation between the two bilingual and monolingual groups was significant. We found that the monolingual participants had lower scores in self-regulation and bilingual participants spent more time to solve the puzzle and got the higher score. The relationship between spatial perspective taking and bilinguality was not significant, though the differences observed in the mean and standard deviations in two groups of bi- and monolinguals are considerable.
Conclusion: The results showed that there was an association between bilingualism and performance in   self-regulation task. Although Kendall correlation coefficients tests between possible pairs of the variables related to the ability of spatial perspective taking and bilingualism were not statistically significant, the bilingual participants spent less time on the spatial perspective taking task, indicating the participantschr(chr('39')39chr('39')) ability of spatial perspective taking was higher than average. The study of statistical results did not show a significant difference between the scores of spatial and self-regulatory selection tests, but careful attention to the means and data scatter of the studied variables indicates that people with lower scores in self-regulation test, on average, have more ability to select landscape. In addition, it was observed that there is a significant relationship between the three scores of "total duration of spatial selection test", "total duration of self-regulation test" and the dominant language of people at home. Also an important finding of this test was that Persian monolingual participants tended mainly to the right in orientations, while participants who were bilingual Turkish / Persian tended mainly to the left in orientations. A closer look at the direction of the hints may provide useful information on the relationship between bilingualism and map-based spatial orientation.
Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/09/26 | Accepted: 2021/07/4

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