Volume 24, Issue 2 (summer 2022)                   Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2022, 24(2): 43-56 | Back to browse issues page

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Ghaffarzadeh N, Saken Azary R, Abdollahpour M A, Moheb N. Predicting academic self-handicapping based on metacognitive beliefs, fear of negative appraisal and perfectionism regarding the mediating role of goal orientation: Presenting a structural model. Advances in Cognitive Sciences. 2022; 24 (2) :43-56
URL: http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1322-en.html
1- PhD Student in Educational Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Sarab Branch, Sarab, Iran
3- Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Mahabad, Iran
4- Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
Abstract:   (282 Views)
 Introduction
Today, adolescent students' academic lives are complicated and full of challenges. The learners' interactions in the educational environment are usually identified as an essential factor and a leading and fundamental resource in expressing the emotional experiences, including self-handicapping. Academic self-handicapping is one of the less known strategies that are used to explain the failure. It has unpleasant academic outcomes for the students and other actors of the field in education. Some factors like metacognitive beliefs and perfectionism are related to this variable. Metacognition is a multi-aspect concept referring to psychological structures, event knowledge, and procedures, which are involved in control and explanation. The structure of perfectionism, the other structure studied in this research, refers to self-destructive thoughts and behaviors whose goal is to reach to be unreal. Some believe that perfectionism is an advantageous motivational property that increases success and accomplishment to priority and perfection. On the other hand, the concept of goal orientation indicates a coherent pattern of the person's beliefs, attributions, and emotions that leads him to have different tendencies to the situations. The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining the role of metacognitive beliefs and perfectionism in predicting academic self-handicapping by mediating goal orientation in senior high school students in Urmia.
Methods
This study's methodology was descriptive-correlational, done through a structural equation pattern. The statistical population of this research included all the senior high school students in Urmia, who were totally 30984 people. Among them, 827 people were selected by randomized cluster sampling method (413 people for the fitness of the primary model and 414 people for the measurement model). The sample was selected among 69 male schools and 77 female schools. The data collection instruments included the following: 1) Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire (1997) that was designed by Cartwright Hawton & Wells, and its short form has 30 items in five subscales. On this scale, Cronbach’s alpha in Iran was measured as 0.91, and its reliability for the total scale was 0.73. 2) Hewitt & Flett's Perfectionism Questionnaire (1991)  designed by Hewitt & Flett and had 30 items. On this scale, Cronbach’s alpha in Iran has measured as 0.90 to 0.78 for all its subscales, and its reliability for scale was between 0.80 to 0.84. 3) Midgley et al. designed the Academic Self-Handicapping Scale (1996), which has five items. This scale's internal consistency in Iran was measured as 0.77, and 4) goal orientation scale (1998) was firstly designed by Midgley et al. It has 12 items in four subscales. This scale Cronbach’s alpha in Iran was measured as 0.87. The structural equations method and especially Bootstrapping method were used To test the data (H1: P=0.001; H2=0.037).
Results
The results of structural equation analysis in which there are three independent variables, four dependent or mediating variables, and a primary dependent variable indicated that the presented structural equation has a good fit, all the indices have an excellent fit, and the good fit index was 0.933. Confirmatory factor analysis of academic self-handicapping was carried out using first rank confirmatory factor analysis in the components level, which was done in graphic Amos software. The Academic Self-Handicapping Scale has 23 items, and item 21 was eliminated because of low reliability. The analysis showed that factor loads obtained for all the items are more than 0.4 and have enough validity to be kept in the measurement model. Also, the factor load of all the items is significant at the level of 95 percent. In order to examine the mediating role of one variable self-regulating method was used because of being easy. Regarding the results, it is observed that without the involvement of mediating variable of goal orientation, fear of negative appraisal has no significant effect on academic self-handicapping. An indirect effect of fear of negative appraisal on academic self-handicapping is insignificant. In order to examine the mediating effect of goal orientation on the influence of metacognitive beliefs on the students' academic self-handicapping, Bootstrapping's method was used. Based on the obtained results, it was observed that metacognitive beliefs significantly affect the student's academic self-handicapping without the involvement of the goal orientation mediating variable (t=-4.31, P=0.001). On the other hand, in the mediating model, the direct route of metacognitive beliefs in metacognitive beliefs on academic self-handicapping is significant in 95 percent of confidence (P=0.001). Nevertheless, the value of the direct standard coefficient in the direct model, which was equal to -0.506, decreased and became -0.502. Accordingly, it could be concluded that goal orientation has a minimal mediating effect on the relationship between metacognitive beliefs on the students' academic self-handicapping. In order to study the mediating effect of goal orientation in the relationship between perfectionism on the student’s academic self-handicapping, Bootstrapping's method was used. Based on the results it was observed that perfectionism has a reverse effect on the students' academic self-handicapping without the involvement of mediating variable of goal orientation. On the other hand, in the mediating model, the direct route of perfectionism on academic self-handicapping is not significant in 95 percent of confidence (P=0.986). In other words, adding the mediating variable of several types of goal orientation to the model causes the direct route coefficient for this structure, i.e., perfectionism with academic self-handicapping, to change from a significant to an insignificant state. Thus, it could be concluded that goal orientation fully mediatesthe relationship between perfectionism on the student's  academic self-handicapping.
Conclusion
According to the present study’s findings, it was concluded that the model of metacognitive beliefs, fear of negative appraisal, and perfectionism predict academic self-handicapping by the mediating role of goal orientation. The findings of this research regarding the factors that have a role in the student's academic self-handicapping could be applied in the schools and by the counselors, school psychologists, and teachers. Considering the importance of the adolescence period, which is a passing period in life, the  the present study’s findings could increase more knowledge about using self-handicapping behaviors and their outcomes and the success or failure factors in them.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

The participants were assured that the obtained personal information would be confidential. Also, the freedom of the subjects to participate in the research was considered.
Authors’ contributions
All the authors participated in carrying out this research and  had an equal share in writing and editing this article.
Funding
This research was done at the personal expense of the first author.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge the staff and teachers of the education district of Urmia city.

Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest among the authors.




 
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2021/08/23 | Accepted: 2022/04/12 | Published: 2022/08/11

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