Volume 23, Issue 1 (Spring 2021)                   Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2021, 23(1): 116-127 | Back to browse issues page


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Samimifar M, Bahrami-Khorshid S, Akbari Chermahini S, Esmaeilinasab M, Fayyaz E. The N400 latency for language emotionality differences of first and second language: Inquiring Turkish-Persian bilinguals. Advances in Cognitive Sciences. 2021; 23 (1) :116-127
URL: http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1187-en.html
1- MA in Linguistics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3- Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Arak University, Arak, Iran
4- Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (2370 Views)
Introduction: Language is a constituent of human behavior and perhaps one of the most complex cognitive skills. The use of language is a substantial part of social and cultural lives. Another significant aspect of the way we interact with the world around us is emotion. Humans experience different emotions at the same time and express them through language. Several authors have remarked that there is a bi-directional relationship between language and emotion, where not only language evokes emotions and affects emotional perception, but emotional content influences language processing and use. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that bilingual speakers feel different emotionality for their first (L1) and second (L2) language, and L2 is emotionally distant. The present study aimed to examine the additional sense of anger emotionality in Turkish-Persian bilinguals’ first and second language.
Methods: In this respect, 18 Turkish-Persian sequential bilinguals (with an average age of 26) who were students of Tehran universities were selected using targeted sampling, participated in this experimental research. At first, participants filled out language history, General Health, Positive and Negative affect schedule, and Handedness questionnaires to make sure that they meet all the requirements. Then, they participated in an auditory task with anger-inducing and neutral words of two languages as the stimuli, and their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded simultaneously. The task was divided into four blocks with a break between them. Two separate blocks for each language containing a list of 60 anger-inducing or neutral words were presented indifferently randomized order for each participant, one language-one emotion per run. The order of words in blocks was randomized as well, and they were presented via the speaker. The participants were tested individually in a quiet room. The electrodes were placed on their head with gel to increase the conductivity with the skull. They fixed their gaze on the center of the screenand then ran the task.  Electroencephalograms were continuously recorded in each block from 64 active Ag/AgCL scalp electrodes, which were embedded in an elastic cap according to the extended 10/20 system concerning the right auricular (A2) electrode. The entire experimental session lasted approximately 25 minutes and stored raw data for subsequent offline analysis. Average ERPs were generated separately for each participant, electrode, stimulus type (anger-inducing and neutral words), and language (L1 vs. L2).  Finally, the peak and latency of the N400 component were measured from stimulus onset to the most negative peak in the 300-600 ms time intervals and later analyzed using Friedman statistical test.
Results: The results of comparing N400 latency among blocks revealed that there was a significant difference in 30 channels. Paired comparison results using the Wilcoxon test revealed that the mean N400 latency at some channels was significantly less (P<0.05) for Turkish anger words comparing to Persian ones.
Conclusion: Turkish anger words’ faster processing revealed that the participants’ L1 attracted their attention faster and led to easier emotional lexical processing. In addition, the first language induced more emotionality followed by easier lexical access and semantic processing, whereas second language processing was less automatic. Based on the results, it is concluded that since they have acquired Turkish at home and in the context of their family, it has been led to the establishment of emotional resonances and has been felt more emotional than their L2, which has been learned at school.  Finally, it can be stated that L1 emotional words are more deeply coded and have deeper emotional associations than L2 ones.
Full-Text [PDF 1902 kb]   (104 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/09/15 | Accepted: 2021/01/14 | Published: 2021/03/14

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